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Spring Cloud之深入理解Feign之源码解析

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什么是Feign

Feign是受到Retrofit,JAXRS-2.0和WebSocket的影响,它是一个jav的到http客户端绑定的开源项目。 Feign的主要目标是将Java Http 客户端变得简单。Feign的源码地址:https://github.com/OpenFeign/feign

写一个Feign

在我之前的博文有写到如何用Feign去消费服务,文章地址:http://blog.csdn.net/forezp/article/details/69808079

现在来简单的实现一个Feign客户端,首先通过@FeignClient,客户端,其中value为调用其他服务的名称,FeignConfig.class为FeignClient的配置文件,代码如下:

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@FeignClient(value = "service-hi",configuration = FeignConfig.class)
public interface SchedualServiceHi {
@GetMapping(value = "/hi")
String sayHiFromClientOne(@RequestParam(value = "name") String name);
}

其自定义配置文件如下,当然也可以不写配置文件,用默认的即可:

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@Configuration
public class FeignConfig {
@Bean
public Retryer feignRetryer() {
return new Retryer.Default(100, SECONDS.toMillis(1), 5);
}
}

查看FeignClient注解的源码,其代码如下:

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@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface FeignClient {
@AliasFor("name")
String value() default "";
@AliasFor("value")
String name() default "";
@AliasFor("value")
String name() default "";
String url() default "";
boolean decode404() default false;
Class<?>[] configuration() default {};
Class<?> fallback() default void.class;
Class<?> fallbackFactory() default void.class;
}
String path() default "";
boolean primary() default true;

FeignClient注解被@Target(ElementType.TYPE)修饰,表示FeignClient注解的作用目标在接口上;
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME),注解会在class字节码文件中存在,在运行时可以通过反射获取到;@Documented表示该注解将被包含在javadoc中。

feign 用于声明具有该接口的REST客户端的接口的注释应该是创建(例如用于自动连接到另一个组件。 如果功能区可用,那将是
用于负载平衡后端请求,并且可以配置负载平衡器
使用与伪装客户端相同名称(即值)@RibbonClient 。

其中value()和name()一样,是被调用的 service的名称。
url(),直接填写硬编码的url,decode404()即404是否被解码,还是抛异常;configuration(),标明FeignClient的配置类,默认的配置类为FeignClientsConfiguration类,可以覆盖Decoder、Encoder和Contract等信息,进行自定义配置。fallback(),填写熔断器的信息类。

FeignClient的配置

默认的配置类为FeignClientsConfiguration,这个类在spring-cloud-netflix-core的jar包下,打开这个类,可以发现它是一个配置类,注入了很多的相关配置的bean,包括feignRetryer、FeignLoggerFactory、FormattingConversionService等,其中还包括了Decoder、Encoder、Contract,如果这三个bean在没有注入的情况下,会自动注入默认的配置。

  • Decoder feignDecoder: ResponseEntityDecoder(这是对SpringDecoder的封装)
  • Encoder feignEncoder: SpringEncoder
  • Logger feignLogger: Slf4jLogger
  • Contract feignContract: SpringMvcContract
  • Feign.Builder feignBuilder: HystrixFeign.Builder

代码如下:

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@Configuration
public class FeignClientsConfiguration {
...//省略代码
@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean
public Decoder feignDecoder() {
return new ResponseEntityDecoder(new SpringDecoder(this.messageConverters));
}
@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean
public Encoder feignEncoder() {
return new SpringEncoder(this.messageConverters);
}
@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean
public Contract feignContract(ConversionService feignConversionService) {
return new SpringMvcContract(this.parameterProcessors, feignConversionService);
}
...//省略代码
}

重写配置:

你可以重写FeignClientsConfiguration中的bean,从而达到自定义配置的目的,比如FeignClientsConfiguration的默认重试次数为Retryer.NEVER_RETRY,即不重试,那么希望做到重写,写个配置文件,注入feignRetryer的bean,代码如下:

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@Configuration
public class FeignConfig {
@Bean
public Retryer feignRetryer() {
return new Retryer.Default(100, SECONDS.toMillis(1), 5);
}
}

在上述代码更改了该FeignClient的重试次数,重试间隔为100ms,最大重试时间为1s,重试次数为5次。

Feign的工作原理

feign是一个伪客户端,即它不做任何的请求处理。Feign通过处理注解生成request,从而实现简化HTTP API开发的目的,即开发人员可以使用注解的方式定制request api模板,在发送http request请求之前,feign通过处理注解的方式替换掉request模板中的参数,这种实现方式显得更为直接、可理解。

通过包扫描注入FeignClient的bean,该源码在FeignClientsRegistrar类:
首先在启动配置上检查是否有@EnableFeignClients注解,如果有该注解,则开启包扫描,扫描被@FeignClient注解接口。代码如下:

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private void registerDefaultConfiguration(AnnotationMetadata metadata,
BeanDefinitionRegistry registry) {
Map<String, Object> defaultAttrs = metadata
.getAnnotationAttributes(EnableFeignClients.class.getName(), true);
if (defaultAttrs != null && defaultAttrs.containsKey("defaultConfiguration")) {
String name;
if (metadata.hasEnclosingClass()) {
name = "default." + metadata.getEnclosingClassName();
}
else {
name = "default." + metadata.getClassName();
}
registerClientConfiguration(registry, name,
defaultAttrs.get("defaultConfiguration"));
}
}

程序启动后通过包扫描,当类有@FeignClient注解,将注解的信息取出,连同类名一起取出,赋给BeanDefinitionBuilder,然后根据BeanDefinitionBuilder得到beanDefinition,最后beanDefinition式注入到ioc容器中,源码如下:

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public void registerFeignClients(AnnotationMetadata metadata,
BeanDefinitionRegistry registry) {
ClassPathScanningCandidateComponentProvider scanner = getScanner();
scanner.setResourceLoader(this.resourceLoader);
Set<String> basePackages;
Map<String, Object> attrs = metadata
.getAnnotationAttributes(EnableFeignClients.class.getName());
AnnotationTypeFilter annotationTypeFilter = new AnnotationTypeFilter(
FeignClient.class);
final Class<?>[] clients = attrs == null ? null
: (Class<?>[]) attrs.get("clients");
if (clients == null || clients.length == 0) {
scanner.addIncludeFilter(annotationTypeFilter);
basePackages = getBasePackages(metadata);
}
else {
final Set<String> clientClasses = new HashSet<>();
basePackages = new HashSet<>();
for (Class<?> clazz : clients) {
basePackages.add(ClassUtils.getPackageName(clazz));
clientClasses.add(clazz.getCanonicalName());
}
AbstractClassTestingTypeFilter filter = new AbstractClassTestingTypeFilter() {
@Override
protected boolean match(ClassMetadata metadata) {
String cleaned = metadata.getClassName().replaceAll("\\$", ".");
return clientClasses.contains(cleaned);
}
};
scanner.addIncludeFilter(
new AllTypeFilter(Arrays.asList(filter, annotationTypeFilter)));
}
for (String basePackage : basePackages) {
Set<BeanDefinition> candidateComponents = scanner
.findCandidateComponents(basePackage);
for (BeanDefinition candidateComponent : candidateComponents) {
if (candidateComponent instanceof AnnotatedBeanDefinition) {
// verify annotated class is an interface
AnnotatedBeanDefinition beanDefinition = (AnnotatedBeanDefinition) candidateComponent;
AnnotationMetadata annotationMetadata = beanDefinition.getMetadata();
Assert.isTrue(annotationMetadata.isInterface(),
"@FeignClient can only be specified on an interface");
Map<String, Object> attributes = annotationMetadata
.getAnnotationAttributes(
FeignClient.class.getCanonicalName());
String name = getClientName(attributes);
registerClientConfiguration(registry, name,
attributes.get("configuration"));
registerFeignClient(registry, annotationMetadata, attributes);
}
}
}
}
private void registerFeignClient(BeanDefinitionRegistry registry,
AnnotationMetadata annotationMetadata, Map<String, Object> attributes) {
String className = annotationMetadata.getClassName();
BeanDefinitionBuilder definition = BeanDefinitionBuilder
.genericBeanDefinition(FeignClientFactoryBean.class);
validate(attributes);
definition.addPropertyValue("url", getUrl(attributes));
definition.addPropertyValue("path", getPath(attributes));
String name = getName(attributes);
definition.addPropertyValue("name", name);
definition.addPropertyValue("type", className);
definition.addPropertyValue("decode404", attributes.get("decode404"));
definition.addPropertyValue("fallback", attributes.get("fallback"));
definition.addPropertyValue("fallbackFactory", attributes.get("fallbackFactory"));
definition.setAutowireMode(AbstractBeanDefinition.AUTOWIRE_BY_TYPE);
String alias = name + "FeignClient";
AbstractBeanDefinition beanDefinition = definition.getBeanDefinition();
boolean primary = (Boolean)attributes.get("primary"); // has a default, won't be null
beanDefinition.setPrimary(primary);
String qualifier = getQualifier(attributes);
if (StringUtils.hasText(qualifier)) {
alias = qualifier;
}
BeanDefinitionHolder holder = new BeanDefinitionHolder(beanDefinition, className,
new String[] { alias });
BeanDefinitionReaderUtils.registerBeanDefinition(holder, registry);
}

注入bean之后,通过jdk的代理,当请求Feign Client的方法时会被拦截,代码在ReflectiveFeign类,代码如下:

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public <T> T newInstance(Target<T> target) {
Map<String, MethodHandler> nameToHandler = targetToHandlersByName.apply(target);
Map<Method, MethodHandler> methodToHandler = new LinkedHashMap<Method, MethodHandler>();
List<DefaultMethodHandler> defaultMethodHandlers = new LinkedList<DefaultMethodHandler>();
for (Method method : target.type().getMethods()) {
if (method.getDeclaringClass() == Object.class) {
continue;
} else if(Util.isDefault(method)) {
DefaultMethodHandler handler = new DefaultMethodHandler(method);
defaultMethodHandlers.add(handler);
methodToHandler.put(method, handler);
} else {
methodToHandler.put(method, nameToHandler.get(Feign.configKey(target.type(), method)));
}
}
InvocationHandler handler = factory.create(target, methodToHandler);
T proxy = (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(target.type().getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[]{target.type()}, handler);
for(DefaultMethodHandler defaultMethodHandler : defaultMethodHandlers) {
defaultMethodHandler.bindTo(proxy);
}
return proxy;
}

在SynchronousMethodHandler类进行拦截处理,当被FeignClient的方法被拦截会根据参数生成RequestTemplate对象,该对象就是http请求的模板,代码如下:

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@Override
public Object invoke(Object[] argv) throws Throwable {
RequestTemplate template = buildTemplateFromArgs.create(argv);
Retryer retryer = this.retryer.clone();
while (true) {
try {
return executeAndDecode(template);
} catch (RetryableException e) {
retryer.continueOrPropagate(e);
if (logLevel != Logger.Level.NONE) {
logger.logRetry(metadata.configKey(), logLevel);
}
continue;
}
}
}

其中有个executeAndDecode()方法,该方法是通RequestTemplate生成Request请求对象,然后根据用client获取response。

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Object executeAndDecode(RequestTemplate template) throws Throwable {
Request request = targetRequest(template);
...//省略代码
response = client.execute(request, options);
...//省略代码
}

Client组件

其中Client组件是一个非常重要的组件,Feign最终发送request请求以及接收response响应,都是由Client组件完成的,其中Client的实现类,只要有Client.Default,该类由HttpURLConnnection实现网络请求,另外还支持HttpClient、Okhttp.

首先来看以下在FeignRibbonClient的自动配置类,FeignRibbonClientAutoConfiguration ,主要在工程启动的时候注入一些bean,其代码如下:

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@ConditionalOnClass({ ILoadBalancer.class, Feign.class })
@Configuration
@AutoConfigureBefore(FeignAutoConfiguration.class)
public class FeignRibbonClientAutoConfiguration {
@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean
public Client feignClient(CachingSpringLoadBalancerFactory cachingFactory,
SpringClientFactory clientFactory) {
return new LoadBalancerFeignClient(new Client.Default(null, null),
cachingFactory, clientFactory);
}
}

在缺失配置feignClient的情况下,会自动注入new Client.Default(),跟踪Client.Default()源码,它使用的网络请求框架为HttpURLConnection,代码如下:

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@Override
public Response execute(Request request, Options options) throws IOException {
HttpURLConnection connection = convertAndSend(request, options);
return convertResponse(connection).toBuilder().request(request).build();
}

怎么在feign中使用HttpClient,查看FeignRibbonClientAutoConfiguration的源码

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@ConditionalOnClass({ ILoadBalancer.class, Feign.class })
@Configuration
@AutoConfigureBefore(FeignAutoConfiguration.class)
public class FeignRibbonClientAutoConfiguration {
...//省略代码
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnClass(ApacheHttpClient.class)
@ConditionalOnProperty(value = "feign.httpclient.enabled", matchIfMissing = true)
protected static class HttpClientFeignLoadBalancedConfiguration {
@Autowired(required = false)
private HttpClient httpClient;
@Bean
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(Client.class)
public Client feignClient(CachingSpringLoadBalancerFactory cachingFactory,
SpringClientFactory clientFactory) {
ApacheHttpClient delegate;
if (this.httpClient != null) {
delegate = new ApacheHttpClient(this.httpClient);
}
else {
delegate = new ApacheHttpClient();
}
return new LoadBalancerFeignClient(delegate, cachingFactory, clientFactory);
}
}
...//省略代码
}

从代码@ConditionalOnClass(ApacheHttpClient.class)注解可知道,只需要在pom文件加上HttpClient的classpath就行了,另外需要在配置文件上加上feign.httpclient.enabled为true,从 @ConditionalOnProperty注解可知,这个可以不写,在默认的情况下就为true.

在pom文件加上:

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<dependency>
<groupId>com.netflix.feign</groupId>
<artifactId>feign-httpclient</artifactId>
<version>RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

同理,如果想要feign使用Okhttp,则只需要在pom文件上加上feign-okhttp的依赖:

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<dependency>
<groupId>com.netflix.feign</groupId>
<artifactId>feign-okhttp</artifactId>
<version>RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

feign的负载均衡是怎么样实现的呢?

通过上述的FeignRibbonClientAutoConfiguration类配置Client的类型(httpurlconnection,okhttp和httpclient)时候,可知最终向容器注入的是LoadBalancerFeignClient,即负载均衡客户端。现在来看下LoadBalancerFeignClient的代码:

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@Override
public Response execute(Request request, Request.Options options) throws IOException {
try {
URI asUri = URI.create(request.url());
String clientName = asUri.getHost();
URI uriWithoutHost = cleanUrl(request.url(), clientName);
FeignLoadBalancer.RibbonRequest ribbonRequest = new FeignLoadBalancer.RibbonRequest(
this.delegate, request, uriWithoutHost);
IClientConfig requestConfig = getClientConfig(options, clientName);
return lbClient(clientName).executeWithLoadBalancer(ribbonRequest,
requestConfig).toResponse();
}
catch (ClientException e) {
IOException io = findIOException(e);
if (io != null) {
throw io;
}
throw new RuntimeException(e);
}
}

其中有个executeWithLoadBalancer()方法,即通过负载均衡的方式请求。

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public T executeWithLoadBalancer(final S request, final IClientConfig requestConfig) throws ClientException {
RequestSpecificRetryHandler handler = getRequestSpecificRetryHandler(request, requestConfig);
LoadBalancerCommand<T> command = LoadBalancerCommand.<T>builder()
.withLoadBalancerContext(this)
.withRetryHandler(handler)
.withLoadBalancerURI(request.getUri())
.build();
try {
return command.submit(
new ServerOperation<T>() {
@Override
public Observable<T> call(Server server) {
URI finalUri = reconstructURIWithServer(server, request.getUri());
S requestForServer = (S) request.replaceUri(finalUri);
try {
return Observable.just(AbstractLoadBalancerAwareClient.this.execute(requestForServer, requestConfig));
}
catch (Exception e) {
return Observable.error(e);
}
}
})
.toBlocking()
.single();
} catch (Exception e) {
Throwable t = e.getCause();
if (t instanceof ClientException) {
throw (ClientException) t;
} else {
throw new ClientException(e);
}
}
}

其中服务在submit()方法上,点击submit进入具体的方法,这个方法是LoadBalancerCommand的方法:

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Observable<T> o =
(server == null ? selectServer() : Observable.just(server))
.concatMap(new Func1<Server, Observable<T>>() {
@Override
// Called for each server being selected
public Observable<T> call(Server server) {
context.setServer(server);
}}

上述代码中有个selectServe(),该方法是选择服务的进行负载均衡的方法,代码如下:

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private Observable<Server> selectServer() {
return Observable.create(new OnSubscribe<Server>() {
@Override
public void call(Subscriber<? super Server> next) {
try {
Server server = loadBalancerContext.getServerFromLoadBalancer(loadBalancerURI, loadBalancerKey);
next.onNext(server);
next.onCompleted();
} catch (Exception e) {
next.onError(e);
}
}
});
}

最终负载均衡交给loadBalancerContext来处理,即之前讲述的Ribbon,在这里不再重复。

总结

总到来说,Feign的源码实现的过程如下:

  • 首先通过@EnableFeignCleints注解开启FeignCleint
  • 根据Feign的规则实现接口,并加@FeignCleint注解
  • 程序启动后,会进行包扫描,扫描所有的@ FeignCleint的注解的类,并将这些信息注入到ioc容器中。
  • 当接口的方法被调用,通过jdk的代理,来生成具体的RequesTemplate
  • RequesTemplate在生成Request
  • Request交给Client去处理,其中Client可以是HttpUrlConnection、HttpClient也可以是Okhttp
  • 最后Client被封装到LoadBalanceClient类,这个类结合类Ribbon做到了负载均衡。

转载请标明出处:
http://blog.csdn.net/forezp/article/details/73480304
本文出自方志朋的博客

参考资料

https://github.com/OpenFeign/feign

https://blog.de-swaef.eu/the-netflix-stack-using-spring-boot-part-3-feign/